從2012年底特律車展看汽車造型設計趨勢-外觀造型設計

從2012年1月在美國底特律的車展(NAIAS 2012),可以看見一些汽車造型設計上的趨勢變化,外觀的造型是朝向整體較為柔和協調的造型型態設計,特性線條更加明確突顯,並回到強調大面積的乾淨曲面,而不是較狹窄的帶狀效果。大部分的設計變得更低調、更受掌控,而車姿和整體型態還是優先於局部的曲面變化。

柔和的形式及圖案設計
一些大廠在新的車款中表現出更多有機形態的造型語言(organic form languages),在近幾年來越來越是明顯。這不外乎是造型形態在「有機」與「幾何」間週期性地交替和過度,我們可以透過這個汽車工業百年來車型的改變而觀察得到。在這次車展中最明顯的例子是Dodge Dart,他放棄了前一代車型Caliber棱角分明的硬朗設計,而是以相當柔軟的型態來設計車頭造型,也和大家一樣開始將大​​燈融入前方水箱罩而形成一個大塊黑色的前臉圖案。不過這相對於Dodge車型一直以來給人的印象,似乎有點太”軟”了一些。

Dodge Dart 2012
Dodge Caliber 2007

張力的線條
無論是在圖案設計或是整體型態上,經過控制且更具張力的線條已經更加明顯地用來詮釋高級車款。這樣的設計手法據說應該是Mercedes-Benz在十多年前首次展現,而奧迪則在過去的五年來成為箇中高手,(個人認為BMW的影響較大,且是堪稱為真正的箇中高手),應該算是英雄所見略同。我們同樣可以在Ford New 2013 Fusion的設計上看到類似的造型手法,所謂Kinetic 2.0的設計語言將車側肩線強勁地從前方造型一路貫穿到車後方。最新一代的Honda Accord同樣也在其肩線上出現了類似的特徵。像這樣一路貫穿車身的造型線條,宛如直接將草圖設計強勁的筆觸完整保留呈現在車身設計上(個人認為這種拉長車身的視覺手法其實算不上新鮮)。另外,Cadillac ATS和Lincoln MKZ的概念車款,則是更加善於利用輪廓來設計一個更優雅、更流線的視覺效果。

Ford Fusion & Honda Accord 2012

Cadillac ATS & Lincoln MKZ 2012

更著重於曲面變化
另一個更明顯的趨勢是更加地著重於曲面造型的變化與自由度,來呈現更具雕塑感的車身造型。例如Lexus LF –LC Concept所展現的微妙細膩的立體造型,融合著張力的曲線和波浪起伏的曲面,彼此間疊合消長,特別是圍繞在前燈、氣壩、進氣口以及後方保桿周圍的造型,利用凸凹曲面的結合變化展現精彩豐富的光影變化。BMW 設計總監Van Hooydonk在車展中對LF–LC Concept相當讚賞,他說道 “It’s wild, certainly not the Lexus we’ve known before” “But when the Japanese go wild they are totally in control. Unlike others who can go too far. Of course you can always question whether it needs all the jewellery, but the craftsmanship is very good.”

Lexus LF-LC 2012

而Acura NSX則是呈現了絕然不同的設計手法,利用較大且較平坦一致的曲面搭配豐富的層次變化的細節造型來設計主車身曲面,不僅修飾了大曲面可能造成的視覺過重感,同時也創造了更強的視覺印象(個人認為部分造型細節包括前臉圖案,似乎略顯破碎猙獰,與整體乾淨的主題不那麼搭調)。

Acura NSX 2012


原文擷錄 CardesignNews…

Exterior Trends
Recently the trend has been towards softer forms, more purposeful lines, and emphasis on large and clean surfaces instead of narrow ribbons. The designs are, for the most part, becoming more toned-down and controlled as vehicle surfaces become secondary to stance and overall shape, which were shown in great variety in Detroit.

Softer Forms & Graphics
Several of the OEMs showed more organic form languages, a clear change of tack from the path the industry was taking just a couple of years ago. It’s a classic case of the cyclical transition from hard to soft forms (and vice-versa) that the industry has undergone for decades. The Dodge Dart, for instance, eschews the angular design of its Caliber predecessor in favor of a softer front fascia that seems to melt the headlamp and grille graphics into one piano-black canvas. Its surfacing is similarly – perhaps too – soft.

Taut lines
Controlled, taut lines – both in graphic break-up and in form development – has come to signify premium-ness. It’s a direction that Mercedes-Benz first approached nearly a decade ago and Audi has since become the master of over the past 5 years. As expected, this is filtering down through the industry to those aspiring to join the elite. And so the new 2013 Fusion, which takes on more of Ford’s Kinetic 2.0 design language displays lines pulled aggressively from the front to the rear. The Honda Accord displayed a similar trait in its shoulder line. It’s a very sketch-like direction, with long controlled strokes along the body. The Cadillac ATS and the Lincoln MKZ concept utilize the theme in their silhouettes for a more elegant, streamlined appearance.

Attention to surfacing
Another emergent trend is the extra attention being given to surface development, resulting in more sculptural vehicles such as the Lexus LF-LC concept. It exercises exquisite surface modeling by mixing undulating forms with tight lines that taper and fold into each other, particularly around its lamps, exhausts and air intakes. The combination of convex and concave surfaces catches highlights and reflections for increased drama. Acura’s NSX concept takes a different approach by incorporating larger, flatter surfaces along the body that layer over each other, creating visual strength without excessive visual weight.

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